Home' Aerogram : Aerogram 2009 3 September Contents Aerogram September 2009
Fuselage—the main fore and aft body of the machine to
which the planes and the empennage are attached.
Nacelle—is the term applied to the body central between
the main planes, and the engine controls etc (the
empennage is not attached to the nacelle)
Cellule—term given to the centre section plane and struts
above the fuselage.
Elevator—the adjustable horizontal plane or planes for
controlling the angle at which the machine is flying in
ascending or descending.
Empennage—the tail unit comprising tail planes, elevator,
rudder and stabilizing fin.
Rudder—the vertical plane for turning the machine to the
right or left.
Ailerons - Or balancing flaps—usually hinged to the rear
spar of main planes, the movement of which enables the
pilot to control the machine laterally when in flight.
Dihedral—the angle at which the planes are inclined laterally
from the horizontal, if upward it is termed positive, if down
Incidence—the angle at which the planes are set in relation
to the line of flight.
Streamline—A streamline has a gradual change of curvature
along any section, thus eliminating drag or air suction.
Aerofoil—Is a structional shape designed to give the
maximum amount of lift, with the minimum amount of
resistance to forward motion.
Ribs—are the light members placed fore and aft in planes,
thus giving them strength, and shape to the fabric.
Stagger—is the horizontal distance between perpendiculars
from the leading of the main planes when the machine is at
Chassis—the framework on which a machine rests, or
structure of a machine which enables it to run along the
ground, and to absorb the shock of landing, it includes the
wheels, skids and shock absorbers.
Skids—the lower members of the undercarriage running
fore and aft to which are attached the wheels and axle.
Tail-boom—the tail construction running aft which carries
the empennage of a nacelle type of machine.
Longitudinal stability—exists when the longitudinal axis of
aeroplane tends to return to the horizontal.
Lateral stability—exists when the transverse axis of the
aeroplane tends to return to the horizontal.
Instruments on dashboard in Pilots Cockpit—
Altimeter: An instrument for measuring height above sea
level (this instrument needs adjusting in wet weather)
Inclinometer: An instrument for measuring the angle of slope
of an aeroplane with the horizontal.
Airspeed-indicator: An instrument to indicate the speed an
aeroplane is traveling through the air.
Revolution-counter: an instrument employed to show the
number of revolutions the propellor is making per minute.
Compass: An instrument for indicating the course or
direction in which the machine is traveling.
Petrol gauge: An instrument for registering the amount of
petrol in the petrol tanks.
Watch: An instrument for measuring time.
Map: Of the locality over which the pilot is traveling.
Cross level: an instrument for measuring the angle at which
the machine is banking laterally.
Definition of parts
Boom (tail): the term applied to the long spars running fore
and aft which carry the tail unit of the nacelle type.
Bracing: System of struts and wires to transfer a force from
one point to another.
Control lever: “Joystick” The lever in the cockpit by of which
the controlling surfaces are operated. Usually operates
ailerons and elevators
Control (dual): Duplicated control levers, whereby pilot or
observer can control machine.
Cockpit: the unenclosed compartments for pilot and
observer from which machine is controlled.
Compression Rib: a rib designed to take compression (or
stress) produced by tension of the internal bracing wires.
Cowl: Metal covering for the engine.
Distance piece: (stringers) A long thin piece of wood or tape
passing through and attached to the ribs to prevent them
Extension: That part of upper plane extending beyond the
spar of lower planes.
Fairing: A shaped piece added to struts etc to reduce head
resistance or drag.
Fairlead: A short length of soft metal tube through which a
control wire is led round a bend or run.
Fin: A vertical plane usually mounted at rear of machine for
the purpose of giving directional stability.
Floats: Hollow watertight constructions, which by their
buoyancy sustain a seaplane on water.
Longerons: The longitudinal top and bottom members of a
fuselage and nacelle.
Pitot Tube: An open-ended tube facing forward, which,
combined with a static pressure or suction tube is used in
conjunction with a gauge to measure velocity.
A Rigger’s Notebook
Cecil Cuss was 18 when he joined the Royal Flying Corps as a trainee aircraft rigge
has recently been transcribed by his son-in-law, Bruce Thomas. The information w
invaluable to those interested in authentic World War One production techniques.
Aerogram September 2009
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